When choosing a breed, cows often have to sacrifice several indicators for the benefit of one. So, milk cows weigh little, and meat breeds produce little milk. Simmental breed of cows is designed for those who do not like half measures. She gives and a lot of meat and a lot of milk. The advantages, disadvantages and external features of the species will be discussed later in the article.
How did the breed appear?
About the ancestors of the Simmental cows are controversial. It is not known for certain from whom the species occurred, but the elimination originates in Switzerland. In this country, breeders decided to bring the ideal of meat and dairy cow, which will produce a lot of meat, and a lot of milk.
The history of the breed
For breeding, local cows were taken, which had high rates in various productivity categories. As a result, this species was obtained. The name of the breed was given by the local river Simma (Bern). It is believed that since breeding, the breed has increased its productive features.
Today it is bred almost all over the world. This is a universal view, which determines its popularity.
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The Simmental cow breed has a bright appearance. Growth in withers within 150 cm, body length - 160 cm. The back is wide, straight, angular croup, the stomach is selected, it does not hang down. The rib cage is well developed, but not bulging, there is a breast pad. Udder big, rounded. Legs straight with pink hooves. The neck is short, it may seem that there is none at all, it can be flat or curved.
External features of Simmental breed cows
The head is large, with a developed frontal part. The nose and eyelids are usually light pink, and there may be another color in the mixture. The horns are rounded, as in other species, bright, on the tips may be yellow-brown.
Color purebred fawn or pale-colored. White-headed individuals or red are a mixture, although there are a lot of them, so you can ignore this fact when buying.
When choosing an individual, it is important to ensure that it is complete and healthy. Often there are cows with unevenly developed udders. The only thing that can certainly be traced when buying: the shape of the udder and nipples, color, sensitivity.
Characteristics of the Simmental breed
Simmental cows have a lot of advantages.
Productivity and milk indices of Simmental breed
- On average, the productive period of one individual reaches 15 years.
- Adult females weigh 600-700 kg. Record weight of males - 1 ton. Slaughter yield from a cow is 56%, and from a bull - 65%. Meat is caloric, soft, 12% fat.
- The first birth is possible at the age of 2.5 years. During the process there are complications, so it is recommended to bring a veterinarian, or be personally present at birth. Between calving should be about 390 days.
- In one lactation, you can get 4.5-5 thousand liters of milk. Some farmers manage to get up to 12,000 liters of milk, although this requires special feeding, walking, and care. The average fat content is 4.1%, there are practically no somatic cells in the product.
- Calves are already born large, and by 6 months reach 44-46 kg. Such a weight gain allows you to receive from breeding a lot of high-quality meat. Calves grow quickly with any feeding, as long as they do not overeat and do not starve.
In addition, individuals are very mobile, calm, rarely get sick, which also applies to the positive sides of the species. They quickly adapt to different climatic conditions, are not demanding in food and care.
Among the shortcomings there are two points:
- a large mass of bones;
- when breeding it is necessary to take into account the fact that young individuals often have deviations from the norms of the breed. It is very difficult to get a purebred individual by itself, so calves are so expensive.
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Simmental cows need the same care as other varieties. She needs to be fed regularly and watered. It is important to have a stall protected from external cataclysms and spacious walking close. The stall is desirable to do heated, without drafts, but with ventilation.
Reproduction of Simmental cows
Early in the morning, animals are taken out for compulsory grazing. Every day, at the same time, the females must be milked. Large cows are milked 4 times a day, and smaller ones - 2-3 times. Milking representatives of the breed is not difficult, they calmly relate to this. To simplify the procedure, you can use milking machines for cows.
The basis of the diet is hay and grass, which they find on grazing. In addition, in the evening and in the morning it is necessary to additionally give cereals, vegetables in a small amount. Females, especially during pregnancy, vitamins and minerals are added to the diet. In the drinker should always be clean, fresh water.