Garden strawberry is very useful, it is used in cooking, cosmetology, traditional medicine. The abundance of nutrients makes it a royal berry. It ripens usually early, it can be remontant and simple varieties and hybrids, it is characterized by endurance in front of low temperatures, ease of cultivation. The article will describe the features of strawberry, the methodology of its cultivation and use.
What is garden strawberries?
Garden strawberries - perennial, dwarf, evergreen plant. It grows with a small bush with large trifoliate leaves on high petioles up to 25 cm high. The leaf apparatus changes several times during the whole growing season. One leaf lives up to 77 days, then it falls off and a new one appears.
The number of peduncles depends on the variety. The same applies to the number of flowers on them. On average, each peduncle has 7-10 flowers, which form berries, but this is only an approximate figure, there are also higher numbers. Flowering lasts 10-20 days - it depends on the variety and weather conditions. Flowers are usually bisexual, with five petals, white with a yellow core.
Grows in a small bush with large trifoliate leaves on high petioles up to 25 cm high.
Fruiting is observed already in the year of planting - the plant is skoroplodnoe, although the first harvest may be modest. Approximately 25-30 days after flowering berries ripen. The berries are usually all shades of red, although white varieties are also known. Seeds are located on the surface of the berries - yellow or dark, small.
The negative qualities of garden strawberries include the fact that it does not tolerate frosts poorly. Cooling below -18 ... -22 degrees can lead to complete freezing. That is why the most dangerous for culture are snowless winters, when there is no insulating material. In addition, the heat of more than +40 degrees garden strawberries also can not stand. She has little moisture during this period, the sheets dry quickly, deteriorate.
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There are a lot of varieties of garden strawberries: "Altair", "Beauty Zagorya", "Little F1", "Mitsa Schindler", "Sudarushka", "Talka", "Stranger", "Tribute", "White Swede", "Uralochka Pink" and etc.
There are a lot of varieties of garden strawberries.
And although the quality indicators, their characteristics can be very good, they will grow quickly only in the area for which they were grown. That is why you should choose for planting varieties, zoned in the area where the site is located. Otherwise, the yields will be bad, and the plant may not take root at all. As a result, the money for seedlings or seeds will be wasted, not to mention the strength, time and efforts of the gardener.
How to multiply garden strawberries?
Propagation garden strawberries can be two methods.
- The seed method consists in collecting seeds from berries, planting them in seedlings, growing seedlings and then transplanting them to a permanent place. Seeds can also be easily bought in a store, and not picked from the berries. Propagated by seeds exclusively varietal species.
Vegetative reproduction of strawberries
- Vegetative reproduction - antennae. This method consists in the fact that during the spring, summer, while the bush develops, rooting its processes - the antennae. Towards autumn, they are cut off from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place. This breeding method is ideal for simple, varietal strawberry and hybrids, because the seeds of the first generation hybrids (F1) never preserve maternal qualities.
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A place for planting strawberries gardening is necessary to look for the sun, this culture loves heat and sunlight. Only in the light you can achieve really sweet, juicy berries. It is impossible to grow it in the same place for more than 3 years; therefore, it is worth renewing the site annually, gradually moving or transferring the plants to new plantations. This is done in order to reduce the number of pests and reduce the number of diseases. Grows on slightly acidic soils of any type. Only in sandy soil you need to often apply fertilizer and water.
Place for planting strawberry garden you need to look sunny
You can plant garden strawberries in autumn, 1-1.5 months before the frost or in spring. In the first case, the berries can be tasted much earlier, so it is more popular. But if some rare or expensive variety (hybrid) is planted, it is worthwhile to plant in the spring - this will increase the chance of culture survival.
The land is fertilized at least 1 month before planting with humus or compost. On the day of planting, they level it, make flat rows with a distance of 50-60 cm. In a row, dig individual holes at a distance of 25-30 cm, water, wait until the water is absorbed, and plant 1-2 seedlings. Each bush should be well deepened, but so that the socket was flush with the level of the soil - not lower and not higher. After that, the ground is compacted and left to land for a week to take root.
How to care for strawberry garden?
When growing strawberries in the garden, it is very important to take a responsible approach to business, without delaying one or another procedure for later.
- Weeding and weeding between rows can be done from the beginning of spring, when the snow has melted and the mulch has been removed. It is important to ensure that the roots are not affected during the weeding.
- Watering is carried out as the soil dries. In the dry summer you can make it part, and in the fall (with heavy rains), reduce it.
- If you need to get berries from garden strawberries, and not seedlings, you should remove all tendrils that appear in bushes as they develop in spring and summer, until the crop "returns" the annual harvest.
- In the case when the plant is grown for seedlings (for these purposes usually leave 2-5 bushes), it is necessary to tear off the flower stalks on them. They only pull over all the juices and nutrients, making it difficult for the tendrils to develop and root, and this leads to weak, unviable seedlings.
Agrofibre can be used as mulch
- During the whole culture development, it is worthwhile to add phosphorus-potassium mixtures in the form of solutions once a week or a little less. In winter, if there is a need, fertilizers (mineral) are applied in the form of granules, and organic as is, in fresh or rotted form. Determine the lack of nutrients can be on the leaves: they begin to turn yellow early, dry, covered with spots.
- By the end of the fruiting period, it is necessary to tear off all the bad (diseased) leaves, and leave only the greenest and strongest healthy ones. Then garden strawberries are fertilized with phosphorus-potassium mixtures - this is the penultimate stage of preparation for wintering.
- In winter it is worth mulch planting just in case, so that they do not freeze out if there is little snow. As mulch, you can use any available material or raw materials such as hay, straw, peat, cardboard, agrofibre, sawdust, humus, compost, dry leaves, pine needles.
- In winter, if there is snow, you should throw it on garden strawberries so that its thickness is from 25 to 40 cm. In this case, the plant will not exactly freeze. If there is no snow, you can create additional film cover or add a layer of mulch.
Separately it is necessary to say about diseases and pests. If you choose the right variety and in time to transplant the crop to a new place, it will not get sick and there will be no pests. However, at the first signs of diseases and pests, it is worthwhile to treat garden strawberries with special biopreparations or chemicals (Aktara, Actofit, Calypso, Horus, Scor, Topaz, etc.) to avoid the proliferation of the problem. .