Muscat grapes - a large group of grape varieties of the type of cultural grapes. It has a rich muscatel flavor, from which the name comes. It is grown in warm countries around the globe. The article will cover the features of nutmeg, the most famous varieties, as well as the methodology for their cultivation.
Features of Muscat grapes
The history of Muscat grapes dates back several millennia. It was grown in ancient Rome. It combines several varieties of different types. Of course, the external qualities of Muscat grapes depend on the particular variety, but there are also common features.
Features of Muscat grapes
- The aroma is musky, rich and bright, which distinguishes these varieties from among the many varieties of grapes.
- The berries are large, dense texture.
- The seed is very small (2-3), young grapes may not contain them at all.
- The rind is not very thick, which allows you to eat berries with it. It is usually crispy, without astringency, just as sweet as a berry.
This kind of grapes belongs to the table-technical direction. It is often consumed fresh, made from desserts, juices, but also used to make wine. It is believed that the wines of these varieties have a unique aroma and a pleasant, bright taste.
Now Muscat grapes are grown all over the world, but the largest plantations and the scale of production are concentrated in France, Spain, Italy, Portugal - in these sunny countries the cultivation of Muscat has become a peculiar tradition.
Important! The composition of nutmeg grapes includes an abundance of amino acids and microelements, potassium, calcium, but it is not calorie. Therefore, to use it fresh is useful and even necessary if there are no contraindications.
Despite the use of Muscat grapes for the human body, it cannot be eaten with food allergies and diabetes due to the large amount of sugar in the composition and the irritating effect of juice on the walls of the stomach and intestines.
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Hamburg grape variety
The Muscat grape has a wide range of uses. Due to the high demand it is grown in many countries in large quantities, and breeders annually invent new varieties, but not all experiments of breeders end successfully. And how then to navigate? In order to grow good grapes, you should choose only the best varieties, all of them are listed below.
- "Hamburg" - mid-season variety, ripens in 145-150 days. The average yield of 110 kg / ha. Clusters up to 270 g, not very loose. The berries are not large, 3-4 g, blue-purple with a coating on the peel. The taste and aroma is muscat, the skin is dense, which has a positive effect on transportability, the juice is colorless. Sugar in 100 ml of juice - 22 g. Withstands frosts only up to -18 degrees, therefore, it is grown exclusively in warm, southern countries. Often attacked by diseases and pests.
- "Alexandrian" - Muscat grapes late ripening. Clusters are friable, conical, reach 700 g, berries 6-8 grams each. Color amber yellow, oval shape. The taste is sweet, nutmeg, berries are very fragrant. It has low frost resistance and is often affected by diseases.
The grape variety is Alexandria
- "Pleven Muscat" - An interesting grape variety that boldly can claim to be the best. Berries up to 8 grams, the weight of the bunch does not exceed 800 g. The main positive quality is a very strong muscat flavor and aroma. There is resistance to poor climatic conditions.
- "Brilliant" - Muscat grapes, popular among gardeners. It has a delicate, nutmeg aroma, not too strong. The berries are dense, crunch when biting, weighing 6-8 g. The color is pale pink. Not afraid of disease, but has low frost resistance.
- "Frumoasa Albe" or "White Beauty", as it is commonly called by the people. The color of the berries is golden, the weight is up to 8 g. It has excellent commercial qualities, the berries are beautiful, one-on-one, even, lie for a long time, without spoiling, even in the heat. The average weight of grapes is 500 g.
- "Muscat summer" ripens on average for 120 days. The plant is vigorous. Brushes cylindrical on 600-700 grams. Berries are dense, elongated, amber-colored, weighing up to 8.5 g. Sugar content up to 20%. Winter hardiness up to -23 degrees. Resistant to mildew and oidium.
Grape variety Muscat summer
- "Livadia" - variety of early ripening. The plant does not develop very quickly. The clusters are slightly friable, large, up to 550 g. The berries are dense, with a strong peel, greenish-yellow color, there are also golden when overripe. Very tasty, crunchy, high in juice and sugar. Medium resistant to diseases of all kinds and calmly tolerates frosts up to -21 degrees.
- "Pink" - ripens in 140 days. Clusters are cylindrical, small up to 250 grams. The berries are round, maroon with a pronounced nutmeg aroma. There is plaque on the peel. Variety transportable, but is not very long. The disadvantage of this Muscat grape in its low frost resistance and inclination to all sorts of diseases.
How to plant Muscat?
Planting Muscat grapes is not very difficult - all the same as with an ordinary vineyard. Under individual seedlings need to dig holes. If a sapling is planted, not a cutting, then a hole is dug about 80x80x80 cm, if cuttings are planted, then they can be planted in rows at a distance of 1-1.5 meters from each other.
Grape variety Pleven Muscat
A peg is placed in each pit - the initial support of the vineyard. At the bottom it is worth making a drainage of 5-10 cm, from gravel or rubble, but only on condition that the water table is high. Now you can make a mound of earth in the pit. A sapling is established on this hillock, its roots are straightened well, and then gradually sprinkled with earth. If the cuttings of Muscat grapes are planted, they are only a little deeper in the ground (in rows), sprinkled with earth and tied to a peg.
Peat or humus should be added 2-3 cm in the near-stem circle, but if the planting was done before winter, mulching is necessary by 5-10 cm. Also before the onset of frost, nutmeg seedlings should be covered with a film or similar material. After all, the young Muscat is completely defenseless in the face of frost.
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The requirements for the care of Muscat grapes depend on the variety, as well as the scale of cultivation and the purpose of the crop. Muscats are not very capricious, but without a certain care they simply will not give a good harvest.
Grade of Frumoas Albe
- The drip irrigation system is not so much recommended as it is necessary if the vineyard is extensive and takes up a lot of space. Of course, for a single plant at the dacha there is no drip irrigation, you can do with simple, timely watering. Most of the water plants need during growth, and during the ripening of their fruit is better to reduce, otherwise the berries will be watery.
- Mulching is carried out on large vineyards and small. It retains moisture, reduces the amount of watering, fertilizing and simplifies weeding.
- It is recommended to grow Muscat grapes on a trellis, to which after growing the plant it can be tied up. If there is no trellis, you can use a simple support, like a peg, but for a long time it will not be able to hold the weight of the vineyard.
Grape variety Shiny
- Pruning is carried out in early spring or autumn, before the cold. This is done with a simple shears. It is necessary to remove all unnecessary shoots, to thin out the branches in the vineyard, otherwise the harvest for the next year will be very complicated.
- Loosening is carried out between the rows and under the Muscat grape bushes. However, it is impossible to deeply bury the tool in the ground, so as not to damage the roots. This event is held about once every 1-3 weeks, depending on the climate, soil, irrigation.
- Spraying against pests and diseases is recommended annually in the fall for prevention or in early spring. During the year it is important to monitor the quality of the culture (leaves, vine, clusters) and in which case without delaying the treatment with fungicides or insecticides of the type “Paracelsus”, “Topaz”, “Shavit”, “Falcon”, “Sharpay”, "Horus", "Break", "Quadris", "Aliot", "Sirocco".
- Before winter, it is necessary to hold activities for the shelter of the grapes. In the middle and northern regions, it is held every year, as winters in these areas can be unpredictable.